Prototyping is defined as creating a model, which displays the necessary characteristics of a proposed system

  • Gathering requirements – these requirements will be stated by the knowledge workers as well as become apparent in comparison with the old or existing system
  • Create prototype of system – Confirm a technically proficient system by using prototypes and create basic screen and reports
  • Review by knowledge workers – create a model of the system that will be analyzed, inspected and evaluated by knowledge workers who will propose recommendations to have the system reach its maximum potential
  • Revise the prototype
  • Market the idea of the new system – use the prototype to sell the new system and convince the organization of the advantages of switching up to the new system

[edit] Outsourcing

Outsourcing is defined as having a third party (outside the organization) to build the organization’s system so expert minds can create the highest quality system by.

  • Outsourcing for development software –
    • Purchasing existing software and paying the publisher to make certain modifications and paying the publisher for the right to make modifications yourself
    • Outsourcing the development of an entirely new unique system for which no software exists
  • Selecting a target system – make sure there is no confidential information critical to the organization that others should not see. If the organization is small enough, consider selfsourcing
  • Establish logical requirements – IT specialists and knowledge workers collaborate in a joint application design (JAD) and discuss which tasks to undertake to make the system most successful to gather business requirements
  • Develop a request for a proposal – a request for proposal (RFP) is created and formalized. It includes everything the home organization is looking for in the system and can be used as the legal binding contract
  • Evaluate request for proposed returns and choose a vendor amongst the many who have replied with different prototypes
  • Test and Accept a Solution – the chosen system must be tested by the home organization and a sign-off must be conducted
  • Monitor and Reevaluate – keep the system up to date with the changing environment and evaluate the chosen vendor’s ability and accommodate to maintain the system

Systems Development Life Cycle (SLC) in the United Kingdom’

The SDLC is referred to as the Systems Life Cycle (SLC) in the United Kingdom, whereby the following names are used for each stage:
1. Terms Of Reference — the management will decide what capabilities and objectives they wish the new system to incorporate;
2. Feasibility Study — asks whether the managements’ concept of their desired new system is actually an achievable, realistic goal, in-terms of money, time and end result difference to the original system. Often, it may be decided to simply update an existing system, rather than to completely replace one;
3. Fact Finding and Recording — how is the current system used? Often questionnaires are used here, but also just monitoring (watching) the staff to see how they work is better, as people will often be reluctant to be entirely honest through embarrassment about the parts of the existing system they have trouble with and find difficult if merely asked;
4. Analysis — free from any cost or unrealistic constraints, this stage lets minds run wild as ‘wonder systems’ can be thought-up, though all must incorporate everything asked for by the management in the Terms Of Reference section;
5. Design — designers will produce one or more ‘models’ of what they see a system eventually looking like, with ideas from the analysis section either used or discarded. A document will be produced with a description of the system, but nothing is specific — they might say ‘touchscreen’ or ‘GUI operating system’, but not mention any specific brands;
6. System Specification — having generically decided on which software packages to use and hardware to incorporate, you now have to be very specific, choosing exact models, brands and suppliers for each software application and hardware device;
7. Implementation and Review — set-up and install the new system (including writing any custom (bespoke) code required), train staff to use it and then monitor how it operates for initial problems, and then regularly maintain thereafter. During this stage, any old system that was in-use will usually be discarded once the new one has proved it is reliable and as usable.
8. Use – obviously the system needs to actually be used by somebody, otherwise the above process would be completely useless.
9. Close – the last step in a system’s life cycle is its end, which is most often forgotten when you design the system. The system can be closed, it can be migrated to another (more modern platform) or it’s data can be migrated into a replacing system.


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